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macOS, Features, Specifications, Names, Versions

What are the features of macOS? All you want to realize about the Working Framework created by Apple and every one of its forms. macOS is the popular Working Framework created by Mac explicitly for Mac PCs. The latest rendition traces back to 2001 (Macintosh operating system X) when the organization attempted to consolidate the excellent connection point (Macintosh operating system, brought into the world in 1984) with a UNIX-based working framework.

Although it comes from the open source world, it is exclusive programming. It can’t be adjusted by clients, except for a few explicit dispersions made to be circulated unreservedly. The ongoing variant, called macOS Monterey, is the eighteenth arrival of the product and is accessible for all supported gadgets from October 2021. This is the very thing you want to be aware of to enter the universe of Apple’s Macintosh.

The History Of The Apple Operating System

The first Apple Operating System dates back to 1984, becoming one of the first to introduce the concept of GUI (Graphic User Interface), which will gradually conquer the computer market. The graphical interface was already present in several systems, such as the Alto and Star computers made in the Xerox PARC laboratories. However, thanks to the Macintosh, the intuition achieved global commercial success, starting the actual mass diffusion of the GUI. 

MAC OS lasted until 2001, when the company replaced the “Classic” version with the new Mac OS X (also called OS X), codenamed Cheetah, presenting a wholly rewritten software based on Mach + BSD microkernel. Mac OS was one of the first Operating Systems to introduce the idea of ​​the graphical interface instead of the textual one. From here on, the code names of the various versions will always refer to big cats. However, from the OS X Mavericks version, some of the USA’s symbolic places are considered. From version 10.12 Sierra of 2016, the Operating System changes its name again to macOS, coming with this name up to the present day. 

Regardless of the history of the versions released by Apple, the real revolution set up by the Steve Jobs company was precisely that of the GUI. Developing a simple, intuitive, and aesthetically appealing interface has also inspired the competition, leading to the development of all current graphical operating systems. Among the other peculiarities that have made Apple and Macintoshes successful, we also find the choice of more massive use of the mouse and the three-and-a-half-inch diskette reader. Two other features will greatly “inspire” the other large companies in the sector.

macOS Features And Specifications

The macOS system is installed on all computers produced by Apple, both desktop and portable. It is only compatible with such devices, as it is explicitly made for a specific type of proprietary hardware. Apple has worked hard on this “principle of exclusivity” to allow the use of licenses only on PCs made by the company itself. This is an essential feature because it guarantees a similar user experience on all devices on which the same macOS version is installed.

Therefore, regardless of the hardware or type of computer used, the Operating System will have identical performance for all users. macOS guarantees performance and reliability by choosing a solid principle of exclusivity and the selective use of Operating System licenses. Once support for updates has ended, your device will no longer receive updates but will continue to work as best as possible with the version of the system installed.

Among the various systems in circulation, it is the one that, over time, has remained most faithful to the graphic interface initially designed. Despite receiving dozens of updates, the software has managed to maintain the aspects that have made it famous to the general public. While the graphic features have remained intact, the Apple development team has worked hard to ensure a stable and functional operating system. For this reason, macOS is one of the most used and appreciated worldwide, despite having to compete with equally important giants such as Microsoft and Linux.

macOS Names And Versions

From 1984 to today, the Apple world has changed completely, bringing its Operating System to an almost total rethinking of the idea of ​​the beginning. To understand the evolution and processes that led to the current version of macOS, here is the list of all the versions released over the years. 

1984 – System 1: could count on an interface that laid the foundation for modern GUIs. Among essential features is a desktop with icons and menus, the introduction of the recycle bin to contain unused files (automatically deleted after reboot), a central role of the mouse in the use of the PC, windows, and side scroll bars.

1985 – System 2: An improved version of System 1 with increased speed and many new desktop customization tools. Among the added improvements is being able to connect an office printer to the computer.

1986 – System 3: added further improvements on the graphic side, with the possibility to customize the Operating System even more.

1987 – System 4: designed for Macintosh SE and Macintosh II, both with higher-performing hardware features. This Operating System had several bugs and received a substantial update almost immediately.

System 1 is the first example of an Operating System with a graphical interface, an idea that will lay the foundations for modern computing.

1988 – System 6: considered by many to be the best of this generation, it could already boast a color interface and several rather innovative programs for the time. 

1990 – System 7: an even more powerful version of Apple’s software that, for the first time, offered the user the ability to perform multiple tasks together, thanks to the support of 8MB of RAM. It was one of the most supported releases, with constant updates until 1997.

1997 – Mac OS 8: this Operating System was the first in which you can glimpse the idea that led to the current ones. Here, too, Apple allowed the carrying out of multiple activities simultaneously thanks to the support of a much more powerful and performance-oriented hardware sector.

1999 – Mac OS 9: last release before the breakthrough with OS X. This update has corrected many bugs, preparing users for the arrival of the newest versions of the software.

2001 – Mac OS X 10.0 “Cheetah”: the first “modern” operating system from Apple and could count on an incredibly performing software sector, already projected towards the most current security systems. Moreover, much more powerful PCs arrived on the market, capable of fully exploiting the potential of the software.

2001 – Mac OS X 10.1 “Puma”: a system capable of further improving the capabilities of its predecessor, although it has needed several updates. With this version, it was possible to see the first giant leap forward in performance with substantial improvements to the entire software sector.

2002 – Mac OS X 10.2 “Jaguar”: a version that brought more than 150 updates to the previous one, integrating better network support and enhanced video card use. Among the most exciting features is the presence of one of the first anti-spam filters integrated into the e-mail reader.

2003 – Mac OS X 10.3 “Pantera”: an update that has worked a lot on performance, improving the system’s efficiency in all respects. Among the most important innovations is a real-time cryptographic model to protect files.

2005 – Mac OS X 10.4 “Tiger”: another substantial update contains over 200 fixes and improvements. For the first time, Apple precludes installing this Operating System on computers that did not have an internet connection.

The various versions of Mac OS X are initially named after some big cats; Apple subsequently chooses to use US landmarks.

2006 – Mac OS X 10.5 “Leopard”: further update with several innovations, including improvements in speech synthesis programs and simplified access and improvements in the management of the desktop and graphical environments.

2008 – Mac OS X 10.6 “Snow Leopard”: a version dedicated to introducing new features and consolidating existing ones. The goal was to improve system performance and stability by supporting more modern hardware, such as multicore processors and new graphics cards.

2010 – Mac OS X 10.7 “Lion”: in this version, Apple was the first to introduce the Mac App Store to allow the download of specially designed software. 

2012 – Mac OS X 10.7 “Mountain Lion”: The company has confirmed the full integration between Mac OS X and iOS for mobile devices with this release. In the face of this, the company has decided to rename many apps to make them identical to those available for iPhone and iPod. 

2013 – OS X 10.9 “Mavericks”: this is one of the most famous updates ever because, free, it has been installed by more than half of Apple users. It also introduced, in this case, many improvements, including even deeper integration with iOS.

2014 – Mac OS X “Yosemite”: among the main innovations, we find new features that enhance the notification center and a new, cleaner, more intuitive design.

2015 – Mac OS X “El Capitan”: for the first time, Apple introduces the Metal technology, which allows you to improve graphics performance, thanks to a profound interaction between the main CPU and graphics card.

Since 2016 there has been a new name change, and Apple’s Operating System is called macOS, keeping the places of interest as the identifier of the various versions.

2016 – macOS “Sierra”: a big step forward for Apple Operating Systems, which for the first time introduced Siri features and greater integration with iCloud, implementing improved space management on the PC.

2017 – macOS “High Sierra”: an update focused on technical updates and performance improvements. Again, Apple has preferred to focus its efforts on stabilizing the system rather than introducing new features. 

2018 – macOS “Mojave”: the integration of macOS with iOS continues with the addition of new features. Among the other innovations, there is also a restyling of the App Store look that has become even more intuitive and faster.

2019 – macOS “Catalina”: this version marks Apple’s definitive abandonment of 32bit applications in favor of 64bit ones. Among the features of this update are also some improvements to iTunes and computer security functions.

2020 – macOS “Big Sur”: Besides the classic stability and performance updates, this version focuses on supporting Apple’s new proprietary processors. Other features include restyling the user interface with a more streamlined and clean look.

2021 – macOS “Monterey”: the latest version of the Apple Operating System. Among the many innovations is deeper integration with mobile devices and the ability to use applications such as FaceTime even without an iPhone or iPad. 

iOS, Apple’s Mobile Operating System

Although it is independent software, it is worth examining iOS. The famous Apple Operating System was developed for iPhone and iPod Touch. Software development began in 2005 when Steve Jobs sought a way to bring Mac technologies back to portable devices. This enlightenment led to the creation of the first iPhones, which, launched on the market in 2007, have become one of the cult objects of our time. At the time, however, the operating system still did not have a name and was called iPhone OS. 

iOS becomes a reference point in the world of mobile devices, and Apple builds the first actual hi-tech cult object: the iPhone. The idea was to replicate the conditions of use of Apple computers and, therefore, to create a mobile device “closed” to external applications and designed always to guarantee high performance. The first iPhones were much more straightforward than those we find on the market today, yet they already had some revolutionary features for the time, such as the capacitive display that could be used without the stylus. 

In 2008 the famous App Store was also introduced, from which you can download additional applications for your smartphone.  From that moment on, the evolution of iPhones was very rapid, leading to the release of the iPad, the famous Apple-branded tablet, in a short time. Speaking of the iPad, despite having installed iOS, the version has some differences compared to the smartphone version. The company has designed a specific release for this device and programmed it to manage a different and more performing hardware sector.

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