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What Are IT Security And Its Principles?

IT security should be a top priority for companies. In an environment shaped by globalization and worldwide IT networking, the competitiveness of companies increasingly depends on the secure and reliable operation of corporate IT. The protection of sensitive data plays a unique role.

What Is IT Security?

IT security protects IT systems against damage and threats such as eavesdropping, manipulation, or destruction. This extends from the hardware to the software to the processed data. The protection of sensitive data is paramount. Nowadays, data and information are increasingly representing the actual values ​​of companies. If these are lost, there is a risk of significant operational disruptions or even a company’s entire existence.

The data worthy of protection can be customer, personal, or patient. Information such as corporate strategies, construction plans, or research results is also included. Since many data and things ( IoT ) are now connected to the Internet via networks, security can no longer be viewed in isolation. IT security today includes all network-based communication, applications, processes, and processed information – and thus also infrastructures such as power supply or telecommunications.

The Principles Of IT Security

IT security, therefore, aims to protect data and information processed or stored on IT systems. This so-called information security is based on several protection goals to be achieved, which can be satisfied by different protection measures.


Confidentiality is intended to ensure that no unauthorized person or process can read information transmitted or stored. Protective measures such as access control can prevent unauthorized persons from accessing information.


In the integrity case, it should be ensured that transmitted or stored information has not been changed, i.e., that the original is still available. Measures such as a checksum can be used to identify whether data has been changed.


Availability is intended to ensure that information is always available when it needs to be accessed. Therefore, they cannot be lost, and the necessary hardware and software are permanently functional. With protective measures such as regular data backups, lost data can be restored and available.


Authenticity is intended to ensure that users or data are actual, i.e., they can prove their identity through unique features. Protective measures such as an appropriate password can be used to ensure that a user is who they claim to be.


Binding means that one can determine at any time whether a party involved has sent data. It prevents someone from claiming that they didn’t send a message (e.g., a bank transfer) when they did. Protective measures such as certified time stamps can be used to ensure bindingness.

The three most important protection goals of confidentiality, integrity, and availability are abbreviated in English with the acronym CIA known as the CIA triad. Likewise, other protection goals such as anonymity are often added to the literature. The number of protection goals is therefore not uniformly defined.

Why Is IT Security Important For Companies?

The Costs Of Breaches Of IT Security Are Increasing

Data protection laws such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) or the IT Security Act 2.0 can mean significant fines for companies affected by IT security incidents. There is also a risk of image damage if the data is lost, mainly because consumers nowadays attach more and more importance to protecting their data.

Cybercrime Is Big Business

The hidden costs of cybercrime, the global economy, is more than $1 trillion in damage. Attackers are also increasingly motivated by political, ethical, and social motives. Attacks are becoming more and more sophisticated, and attackers are using an ever-increasing variety of techniques. These include social engineering, malware, and ransomware.


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